Effects of nano-sized zero-valent iron on DDT degradation and residual toxicity in soil: a column experiment
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionPlant and Soil. 2013, 368 (1-2), 189-200. 10.1007/s11104-012-1509-8
Background and aims Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) application is a promising technology for degradation of chlorinated contaminants in soil. Plants also play an important role in soil remediation and nZVI should not adversely affect plants growing on treated soils. Large amounts of DDT are still found in certain soils and means to remediate these soils are limited. Our aims were to investigate the effect of nZVI on DDT degradation and evaluate possible negative effects of nZVI on plants. Methods Columns with spiked (20 mg DDT kg−1) soil were percolated with nZVI (1 g nZVI L−1) and leached with five pore volumes of water to assess leaching of nZVI and residual toxicity of leachates and soil to plants using seed germination and plant growth tests (barley, flax). Results Addition of nZVI led to degradation of 45 % of the added DDT. Percolation with water significantly oxidized and transported iron through the columns. The first leachates had negative effects on plant development, but after leaching with 4 pore volumes, neither soil nor leachates affected plant negatively. Conclusions nZVI is efficient for degradation of DDT and adverse effects of nZVI on plants seem ephemeral and are alleviated after oxidation mediated by percolating water.