In vivo assessment of silver nanoparticle induced reactive oxygen species reveals tissue specific effects on cellular redox status in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The current study provides an in vivo analysis of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to EU reference silver nanoparticles NM300K and AgNO3. Induction of antioxidant defenses was measured through the application of a SOD-1 reporter, and the HyPer and GRX biosensor strains to monitor changes in the cellular redox state. Both forms of Ag resulted in an increase in sod-1 expression, elevated H2O2 levels and an imbalance in the cellular GSSG/GSH redox status. Microscopy analysis of the strains revealed that AgNO3 induced ROS-related effects in multiple tissues, including the pharynx, intestinal cells and muscle tissues. In contrast, NM300K resulted in localized ROS production and oxidative stress, specifically in tissues surrounding the intestinal lumen. This indicates that Ag from AgNO3 exposure was readily transported across the whole body, while Ag or ROS from NM300K exposure was predominantly confined within the luminal tissues. Concentrations resulting in an increase in ROS production and changes in GSSG/GSH ratio were in line with the levels associated with observed physiological toxic effects. However, sod-1 was not induced at the lowest Ag concentrations, although reprotoxicity was seen at these levels. While both forms of Ag caused oxidative stress, impaired development, and reprotoxicity, the results suggest different involvement of ROS production to the toxic effects of AgNO3 versus NM300K.