Pine weevils - a threat to successful regeneration
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The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is an important pest to conifer seedlings in large parts of Europe. To get an objective measure of the extent of damages related to pine weevils in South-Eastern Norway, a survey was implemented in the autumn of 2010 in nine counties. Altogether, 155 stands regenerated by planting in 2009 or 2010 were examined. The percentage of seedlings killed from pine weevil attacks varied between 0 and 63 % in the surveyed fields. On average, 7 % of the seedlings were killed by pine weevils, while 23 % had bark wounds. In addition, 3 % of the seedlings were killed by other causes. Few of the registered field variables were correlated to the degree of damage, but there was a tendency towards higher mortality at the largest clear cuts, in hilly areas, and for dry soil types. The present survey shows that in unscarified stands in SE Norway pine weevils are the most important cause of seedling mortality. A total seedling mortality of at least 10% should be expected the first two years.