Integrated Pest Management adoption by grain farmers in Norway: A novel index method
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionCrop Protection. 2020, 135 . 10.1016/j.cropro.2020.105201
Within the last decade, implementing eight key principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has become mandatory for all professional users of pesticides in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Meanwhile, evidence of the level of implementation is lacking. In this study, the adoption of IPM principles among Norwegian grain farmers was measured using a novel IPM index based on self-reported levels of performing IPM practices. Three IPM experts weighted the principles and practices included in the index. They found prevention and suppression to be the most important principle, followed by monitoring and decisionmaking, while pesticide selection and evaluation were deemed least important. A survey of 1250 farmers showed that the principles with the highest adoption rates were evaluation and anti-resistance strategies, while non-chemical methods and reduced pesticide use had the lowest adoption rates. The results support previous suggestions that more complex principles, requiring a larger set of practices, are less readily adopted than those that are less complex. Nevertheless, the index scores showed that most Norwegian grain farmers are extensively practicing IPM; 75% of the respondents obtained scores between 60 and 80 on a 100-point scale, with an average score of 68. In the Norwegian context, it is more relevant to discuss the varying use of IPM rather than how to increase adoption in general.