Multitemporal Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Images for Characterization and Discrimination of Young Forest Stands Under Regeneration in Norway
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionV. Akbari, S. Solberg and S. Puliti, "Multitemporal Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 Images for Characterization and Discrimination of Young Forest Stands Under Regeneration in Norway," in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 14, pp. 5049-5063, 2021 10.1109/JSTARS.2021.3073101
There is a need for mapping of forest areas with young stands under regeneration in Norway, as a basis for conducting tending, or precommercial thinning (PCT), whenever necessary. The main objective of this article is to show the potential of multitemporal Sentinel-1 (S-1) and Sentinel-2 (S-2) data for characterization and detection of forest stands under regeneration. We identify the most powerful radar and optical features for discrimination of forest stands under regeneration versus other forest stands. A number of optical and radar features derived from multitemporal S-1 and S-2 data were used for the class separability and cross-correlation analysis. The analysis was performed on forest resource maps consisting of the forest development classes and age in two study sites from south-eastern Norway. Important features were used to train the classical random forest (RF) classification algorithm. A comparative study of performance of the algorithm was used in three cases: I) using only S-1 features, II) using only S-2 optical bands, and III) using combination of S-1 and S-2 features. RF classification results pointed to increased class discrimination when using S-1 and S-2 data in relation to S-1 or S-2 data only. The study shows that forest stands under regeneration in the height interval for PCT can be detected with a detection rate of 91% and F-1 score of 73.2% in case III as most accurate, while tree density and broadleaf fraction could be estimated with coefficient of determination ( R2 ) of about 0.70 and 0.80, respectively.